What is behind Erdoğan’s Palace Fetish?

Definitely, Erdoğan has an obsession with palaces. Journalist Murat Bardakçı recently reported that Yıldız Palace, a 19th century Ottoman palace most famously used by Sultan Abdülhamit II, was now allocated for use of the Turkish presidency. In her last state visit to Turkey, Erdoğan hosted Chancellor Merkel there. Only in İstanbul, presently there appears to be three presidential residences: Huber Villa (Tarabya campus), Çengelköy Villa that is lately renewed and Yıldız Palace. Now I say “villa” and “residence” but you should know that they are actually compounds comprising of many buildings.

Mabeyn Pavillion at Yıldız Palace Compound.

The Great Mabeyn Pavillion at Yıldız Palace.

Çengelköy Villa is also known as Vahdettin Villa, named after the last Ottoman sultan who is regarded as a disgraced figure by many. Mostly because he ordered Atatürk’s death as he opposed İstanbul’s rule in his bid to start war of independence. The sultan eventually left İstanbul by a British vessel. Yet, unsurprisingly, in the “alternative” history writing of the Islamists, he is a revered ruler who actually sent Atatürk off to Anatolia to start the war of independence. But then the sneaky Atatürk betrayed him and abolished the sultanate, Islamists believe. Erdoğan’s choice to utilize Vahdettin Villa says a lot. The same thing goes also for the Yıldız Palace that is associated with Sultan Abdülhamit II who is another a poster boy for conservatives. A very smart leader, Abdülhamit II sought to unite whatever remains of the Ottoman Empire through Islamic identity as the Empire had lost most of its provinces in Europe and held generally Muslim-populated lands. Some Islamists go as far as seeing him as a saint and his rule as an anti-thesis for secular system. In addition to being a figure of greatness, he is also a victim as he was deposed by the progressive Young Turks that restored the Ottoman Constitution of 1876. Of course, Islamists do not know and/or go great lengths to overlook the fact that Abdülhamit was pretty much a European monarch: he loved opera, theater, Sherlock Holmes novels and, according to one of his grandsons Ertuğrul Osmanoğlu, drinking rom.

Changes in Ankara are pretty much in line with those in İstanbul. In an unprecedented move, Çankaya which was built in Atatürk’s time and had been the residence of the Turkish presidents since, was given to the Prime Ministry. In historic Çankaya’s stead, a new palace with 1150 rooms that could be rivalled by only Ceausescu’s palace in size and tastelessness, was built in 2014. The official cost was $615 million but Turkey’s Housing Development Administration (TOKİ) rejected to state the real cost of the presidential complex because it could “hurt the economy”. With a bigger palace came also a much bigger budget: from 55 million Turkish lira in 2008, the Presidency’s budget increased to 397 million ($137.7 million) in 2015. The money wasted was not the only cost, however. The complex was built on Atatürk Forest Farm. The construction destroyed much of the one of Atatürk’s most important legacies, hundreds of trees were cut down. Though from the Gezi Park protests, you may already know that Erdoğan is no big fan of green spaces. Nor is he a fan of the law. So the construction went on despite the court decision to halt it.

Much as I dislike the reasons behind choosing these specific historic structures for use of presidency, I support restoring and renewing them as well as occasionally using them for various state events. That would be a perfectly reasonable way to keep them alive. But does the office of presidency need this many palaces? Or is it one man’s ego that needs them so much? Erdoğan’s supporters seem to believe that the recent presidential extravagance displays “greatness” of Turkey. For them, it is a display of power both in international stage and in the domestic arena, a restoration of the former glory of the Ottoman Empire. Though I think the Ottomans fancied by them so much would have strongly disagreed with them. In the peak of its power, the vast Ottoman Empire was being ruled from Topkapı Palace that was indeed very modest compared to palaces in Europe and Russia. The greatest Turkish architect Sinan, the head architect of Suleiman the Magnificent, never really built a single mighty palace but many mosques, bridges and baths… Until the protocol of 19th century made it necessary, Ottoman emperors did not think to build and live in lavish palaces. Of course, the Empire was weak in the 19th century and perhaps, through the palaces matching those of Europe, it needed to show that it was still in the game. In the 15th and 16th centuries, might of the Empire could be observed in its mosques, military structures, fountains not in its original, practical but extremely modest palaces… So, a look at the history shows that there exists a negative correlation between power of the Turkish state and the level of fancy for palaces.

Topkapı Palace

Topkapı Palace

Restoring residences of Sultan Vahdettin and Sultan Abdülhamit II as presidential offices, destroying much of Atatürk Forest Farm, abandoning Çankaya as presidential residence and holding state events in İstanbul so frequently as if it were the capital of the country are intensely ideological choices. In the process, laws are ignored, as is economic rationality. The whole thing that is costing too much and gaining nothing for the people, is being presented as a necessary step to increase the country’s international recognition. The people who are still obsessively envisioning an Ottoman comeback are more than willing to swallow this.

Hence, behind every shining object in these palaces, there is a something very rotten.

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A Possible Game Changer in Turkey’s Presidential Race: The She-Wolf of MHP

Meral Akşener at Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Meral Akşener at Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Turkey will go to polls to choose its first elected president on the 10th of August and still no party officially announced any candidates yet. Rumors are a lot, though. It is considered almost certain that PM Erdoğan will run for president. Whereas what the opposition’s choice will be remains more mysterious. The idea of a common candidate endorsed by both Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) and Republican People’s Party (CHP) is the hope of many who are weary of Erdoğan’s increasingly egoistical and authoritarian rule. Among the possible candidates mentioned, one name seems more distinctive than the others: Meral Akşener.

Undoubtedly, Akşener, currently serving as Deputy Speaker of the Parliament, is the best option of MHP. She is so adored by her party’s base that some even see her as their next leader. She is nicknamed Asena, that is, according to Turkic mythology, the female wolf that led the Turks out of their legendary homeland of Ergenekon. Unlike most Turkish female politicians, she doesn’t owe her position to male guilt of extremely male-dominated Turkish politics, or shallow and symbolic PR attempts to gain women’s votes. A historian by training, she holds a Ph.D and worked as an academician at three different universities. She has been actively in politics since 1994. She was the right hand of Tansu Çiller, Turkey’s first and to date the only female Prime Minister, and served as Minister of Internal Affairs in her government.

Gender, Modesty and Balkans

She was born in İzmit but her parents are from Drama, Greece. And there has always been a sense of solidarity among the Turks originating from Rumeli that is the European part of the Ottoman Empire. It is hard to give a number but suffice to say that they comprise of a good percentage of the country’s population. Akşener is likely to enjoy their support, if she decides to run for president. Also she addresses women quite masterly. Being able to hold key positions as a woman in Turkey’s harsh and male-dominated political climate has to inspire a special admiration among women. In an interview to daily Vatan in 2007, she described herself as an “ordinary, average Turkish woman”. She has lived a rather modest life, stayed with her husband’s crowded family in the same house for 12 years.

Akşener visiting Tatarstan.

Akşener visiting Tatarstan.

MHP-CHP Alliance?

CHP’s leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu dismissed the rumors that his party has decided to nominate Akşener but it is unclear whether they made up their minds on the matter. The official results of the 30th March local elections reveal that MHP and CHP have to partner up, if they have a hope of preventing Erdoğan from becoming Turkey’s worryingly strong president as described by his Putin admirer advisor Yiğit Bulut. There are signs that there could be co-operation between MHP and CHP. For example MHP’s leader Devlet Bahçeli talked of a candidate that addresses the all segments of the society and CHP’s leader seems to be open to the idea of nominating someone outside of his party. But the steps -if they are steps- are too slow, too little.

CHP understands that it doesn’t have much chance to consolidate wide support as a party that emphasizes its leftism. That’s why, wisely, it nominated Mansur Yavaş -a former member of MHP- for Mayor of Ankara and almost got the city. Seeing the perks of going a little right, CHP is likely to endorse or nominate a candidate from the right.

In case of a MHP-CHP partnership, HDP -the new pro-Kurdish party- could stand out as the player holding the key to the country’s future. Naturally, they would never support a Turkish nationalist candidate. However, depending on the AKP’s attitude towards the peace process with terrorist PKK, they may support Erdoğan. But HDP’s support could also prove problematic as it carries the possibility of upsetting nationalists thinking to vote for Erdoğan.

Consequently, Turkey’s opposition needs a presidential candidate that could unify non-AKP right and CHP, and also steal votes from AKP. I think, Meral Akşener, arguably the most influential female politician in the country, is the best option of not only her own party but also other opposition parties. With good campaigning and co-operation among opposition parties, she could become Turkey’s Margaret Thatcher and prevent Erdoğan from becoming its Vladimir Putin.